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What is the Green Revolution: The rapid increase in wheat and rice yields in developing countries, driven by improved varieties and increased use of fertilizers and other chemicals, is known as the "Green Revolution," having a significant impact on income and the Many of these nations had food supplies. William Gaud coined the term 'green revolution' and Norman Borlaug is credited with initiating it, for which he was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize for developing high-yielding wheat.
Green Revolution in India
Green Revolution in India is the process of increasing agricultural production using modern methods and tools. The Green Revolution relates to agricultural production. During this period, the country's agriculture was transformed into an industrial system through the introduction of modern agricultural practices such as the use of high-yielding seed varieties, tractors, irrigation systems, herbicides, and fertilizers. By 1967, the government's main focus was on expanding agricultural land. However, the rapidly growing population demanded drastic and rapid measures to increase yields, which manifested themselves in the form of the Green Revolution.
Father of the Green Revolution in India
In 1965, the Indian initiated the Green Revolution, led by a geneticist also known as the father of the Green Revolution in India, M.S. Swaminathan. Revolution in India leading to increase in food grain production mainly in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh region. A major milestone in this endeavor was the development of high yielding (HYV) wheat seeds and rust-resistant wheat varieties. Figures and institutions recognized for their efforts during the Green Revolution in India are:
- Chief Architect and Father of the Green Revolution in India – M.S. Swaminathan
- Political Father of the Green Revolution and Minister of Food and Agriculture - Chidambaram Subramaniam
- Father of the Wheat Revolution - Dilbagh Singh Athwal
- IARI – Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Tiger reserves in India
Green Revolution in India Important programs
|Mission for Integrated|
development of horticulture
|Its goals are to advance the overall development of the sector, increase production, strengthen income support for farm households and improve food security.|
|National Food Security|
|NMOOP, the National Mission on Oil Seeds and Oil Palm, is one example. The purpose of this program is to boost farm-level economics, restore soil fertility, and increase productivity at the individual farm level, while increasing production of wheat, legumes, rice, coarse grains, and commercial crops. In addition, it seeks to improve domestic production of vegetable and cooking oils while reducing imports.|
|State Mission for|
|Promote sustainable agricultural techniques that are most compatible with local agroecology, with a focus on integrated agriculture, appropriate soil health management and resource conservation technology working together.|
|contribution to agriculture|
|In order to achieve food security and socio-economic empowerment for farmers, this program tries to strengthen the existing extension mechanisms of state governments, local organizations, etc. It also seeks to institutionalize program planning and implementation mechanisms, support HRD interventions, and encourage ubiquitous and creative use of electronic and printed media, interpersonal communication and ICT tools, among others.|
|Sub mission for seeds|
and planting material
|This aims to increase the production of high-quality seeds, improve the quality of farmed seeds and increase the SRR, strengthen the seed propagation chain, and promote new techniques and technologies in seed production, processing, testing, etc. to make them to strengthen and modernize the infrastructure for, among other things, seed production, storage, quality and certification.|
National Parks in India
Green Revolution in Indian History
The Bengal famine of 1943, the worst food crisis on record, caused the starvation of an estimated 4 million people in East India. Even after independence in 1947, the government continued to focus on expanding agricultural land until 1967. However, population growth exceeded the rate of food production. Immediate and drastic intervention was required to increase yield. The Green Revolution served as a catalyst for the action.
With the help of a well-known geneticistFather of the Green Revolution(If),MS. Swaminathan, the Indian government started the Green Revolution in 1965. The country's status was transformed from one of the world's leading agricultural nations by the Green Revolution, which was a huge success.
It began in 1967 and lasted until 1978. The term “green revolution” in India refers to a time when contemporary agricultural practices and technologies, such as the use of HYV seeds, tractors, irrigation systems, pesticides and fertilizers, transformed Indian agriculture an industrial system. India's Green Revolution increased agricultural production, particularly in Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
National Symbol Indians
Goals of the Green Revolution in India
TheGreen Revolution in Indiahas several specific properties.
- Growth in the size of agricultural land
- Dual-growing systems, or the practice of growing crops twice a year.
- Due to the construction of dams and the introduction of other basic irrigation techniques, water was now harvested from extensive irrigation projects.
- Use of high-yielding varietal seeds created from new seed lines with improved genetics.
Wheat, rice, jowar, bajra and corn were the main crops. Grain products other than food were not included in the scope of the new strategy. Wheat remained the basis of the Green Revolution for many years.
Green Revolution in Indiapositive effects
In 1978–1979, a huge increase in crop production resulted in grain production of 131 million tons, making India one of the largest agricultural producers in the world. The acreage of high-yielding wheat and rice varieties increased significantly during the Green Revolution. India was self-sufficient in grain and occasionally even had enough stocks in the central pool to export grain. In addition, there is now more net grain available per person.
The introduction of the Green Revolution helped farmers increase their income. Farmers reinvested their extra money back into their fields to increase productivity. The big farmers, who owned more than 10 hectares of land, benefited the most from this revolution because they made significant financial investments in HYV seeds, fertilizers, machinery, etc. They also supported capitalist agriculture.
The large-scale agricultural mechanization brought about by the Green Revolution in India increased the demand for various types of equipment including tractors, harvesters, threshers, combine harvesters, diesel engines, electric motors, pumping units, etc. In addition, there was a significant increase in the demand for chemical Fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, pesticides, etc. Agro-based industries are those that use a variety of agricultural products as raw materials.
Due to fertilization and multiple crops, the need for labor increased noticeably. The Green Revolution created a large number of jobs for both industrial and agricultural workers by building connected facilities such as factories and hydroelectric power stations.
effects ofGreen Revolution in India
Although the revolution benefited all food grains, including wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, and corn, other crops such as coarse grains, legumes, and oilseeds were excluded. Important cash crops such as sugar cane, cotton, jute, tea and cotton were also largely unaffected by the Green Revolution. Only five crops were allowed in the High Yielding Variety Program (HYVP): corn, wheat, rice, jowar, and bajra. Therefore, the new method did not apply to non-food cereals. The HYV seeds in the non-food crops were either not yet developed or not good enough for farmers to dare to use.
Growing regional and international economic imbalances are a consequence of the technological advances of the Green Revolution. Only 40% of the total cultivated area is affected so far, 60% is still untouched. Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh in the north, and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the south are hardest hit.
The eastern region, which includes Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa, and the arid and semi-arid regions of western and southern India are rarely affected. From the Green Revolution only the agriculturally better off places were affected. Thus, the Green Revolution has meant that the problem of regional inequality has worsened.
Pesticides and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers were used extensively during the Green Revolution to improve irrigation systems and crop species. However, little or no effort has been made to educate farmers about the significant risks associated with intensive use of pesticides. Typically, untrained farm workers sprayed pesticides on crops without taking safety precautions or following instructions. Crops suffer more damage than benefit as a result, and the environment and soil are also polluted. The crops developed at the time of the Green Revolution required a lot of water.
Most of these plants, grains, consumed about 50% of the water that the human body uses. The water table was depleted as a result of the introduction of canal systems and irrigation pumps that drained groundwater from the ground to irrigate crops that require large amounts of water, such as rice and sugarcane.
The nutrients in the soil have been depleted by repeated crop cycles to ensure a higher crop yield. Farmers used more fertilizers to meet the need for new seed varieties. The use of these alkaline compounds caused the pH of the soil to rise. Beneficial pathogens were eliminated by toxic chemicals in the soil, further reducing production.
The mechanization of agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution led to widespread unemployment among agricultural workers in rural areas, with the exception of Punjab and to a lesser extent Haryana. The poor and landless workers were hardest hit. Numerous serious diseases such as cancer, kidney failure, stillbirth and birth defects have been caused by the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
Achievements of the Green Revolution in India
There have been numerous adjustments in cropping patterns and agricultural advances in India as a result of the country's green revolution.
Farmers today enjoy wealth thanks to the Green Revolution. Farming is considered a lucrative profession. Demand for consumer goods has risen sharply in Punjab. The standard of living has improved in Punjab. All crops including Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Chickpea, Corn and Bajra have increased production per hectare. Better seed is the cause. The Green Revolution had a significant impact on the development of the industry. Industries were established producing agricultural equipment such as tractors, diesel engines, combine harvesters, threshing machines and pumping units.
Output growth is the main achievement of the Green Revolution. 33.89 lakh tons of grain grains were produced in 1965–1966. Production increased to 119 lakh tons in 1980–1981. The rural masses are now enjoying prosperity thanks to the green revolution. Bumper harvests have opened up job opportunities for the rural population. Your quality of life has improved. The need for labor increased due to multiple cultivation and excessive use of chemical fertilizers. There is a severe labor shortage during the sowing and harvesting season. Consequently, the green revolution has created jobs.
Second Green Revolution in India
The first Green Revolution was initiated with the aim of eliminating food shortages in India, while the second Green Revolution focuses on agricultural sustainability with the adoption of scientific and organic farming methods to address the challenges
- food inflation
- crop productivity
- environmental hazards
- manure, fertilizers and biocides
- Agricultural marketing
The government has taken several steps to address these issues such as Krishi Vigyan Yojana, Operation Green, eNAM, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), Kisan Credit Card (KCC), Per Drop More Crop Initiative, Har Medh Par Ped, PM Kisan Sampada Yojana (food processing), etc.
Frequently asked questions about the Green Revolution in India
Q.Who is the father of the Green Revolution in India?
Ans. MS Swaminathanis referred to asFather of the Green Revolutionin India as he founded it. It was inspired by Norman Borlaug's initiative.
Q.Who is coming Green Revolution in India?
Ans.In India, the Green Revolution was mainly led byMS.Swaminathan. The Green Revolution led to a significant increase in grain production (particularly wheat and rice) due to the introduction of new, high-yielding seed varieties in developing countries from the mid-1920sthCentury.
Q.What has the Green Revolution done for India?
Ans.The green revolution led to high crop productivity through adapted measures, such as B. the increase in agricultural area, the dual crop method in which two crops are planted annually instead of one, the introduction of HYV seeds and the greatly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, and an improved cultivation pattern
Q.Where was the Green Revolution launched in India?
Ans.The Green Revolution, started in India, began with its launch in Punjab in 1966. It was part of a development program registered by the Government of India along with international donor organizations.
Q.Was India's Green Revolution a Success?
Ans.The Green Revolution produced great economic productivity in its early years. In Punjab, where it was first introduced, the Green Revolution resulted in a significant increase in the state's agricultural growth and underpinned the overall Indian economy.
Other Important Incidents in Indian History
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- Jallianwala Bagh massacre